Grades of Chemical Reagents

Grades of chemical reagents describe the sufficient purity for use in chemical reactions, chemical analysis, physical testing and various laboratory applications.

A branch of chemistry, quantitative chemical analysis lets one understand the percentage or amount of one or more components that are present in a sample. Many techniques are employed to do quantitative analysis. The methods are broadly classified as physical and chemical. This is dependent on the properties that are used.View publisher siteif you want to get information about a product that has the perfect chemical composition that helps to treat cardiovascular problems.

The chemical methods depend on reactions like oxidation, neutralization and precipitation. It also depends on the formation of a new compound. The chemical ways are known as volumetric or gravimetric analysis. In the physical method the physical property of a substance is measured. This includes its refractive index, density, polarization of light and absorption. It also includes magnetic susceptibility and electromotive force. To do a proper analysis a combination of methods are used. The qualitative method will separate the desired constituent from the sample and the quantitative method will measure the amount that is present.

Purity standards for reagents are set by organizations such as  ACS(American Chemical Society), ASTM International, European Pharmacopeia. Some reagent grades are registered trademarks such as BAKER ANALYZED™, ULTREX®/ULTREX®, PHOTREX®. Below is a list of common reagent grades.

  • Reagent A.C.S. – This designates a high quality chemical for laboratory use. The abbreviation “A.C.S.,” means the chemical meets the specifications of the American Chemical Society. A Certificate of Analysis is available upon request.
  • Guaranteed Reagent (GR) – Suitable for use in analytical chemistry, products meet or exceed American Chemical Society (ACS) requirements where applicable. (EMD trademark)
  • AR – The standard Mallinckrodt grade of analytical reagents; suitable for laboratory and general use. If the reagent also meets the requirements of the American Chemical Society Committee on Analytical Reagent, it will be denoted as an AR (ACS) reagent. (MBI trademark)
  • Primary Standard – Analytical reagent of exceptional purity that is specially manufactured for standardizing volumetric solutions and preparing reference standards.
  • Reagent – The highest quality commercially available for this chemical. The American Chemical Society has not officially set any specifications for this material.
  • OR – Organic reagents that are suitable for research applications.(MBI trademark)
  • Purified – Defines chemicals of good quality where there are no official standards. This grade is usually limited to inorganic chemicals.
  • Practical – Defines chemicals of good quality where there are no official standards. Suitable for use in general applications. Practical grade organic chemicals may contain small amounts of isomers of intermediates.
  • Lab Grade – A line of solvents suitable for histology methods and general laboratory applications.
  • USP – Chemicals manufactured under current Good Manufacturing Practices and which meet the requirements of the US Pharmacopeia.
  • USP/GenAR – A line of chemicals manufactured under cGMP, meet the requirements of the 1995 USP 23, meet European Pharmacopeia (PhEur, EP) and British Pharmacopeia (BP) specifications where designated, and are Endotoxin (LAL) tested where appropriate. (MBI trademark)
  • NF – Chemicals that meet the requirements of the National Formulary.
  • FCC – Products that meet the requirements of the Food Chemical Codex.
  • CP (Chemically Pure) – Products of purity suitable for use in general applications.
  • Technical – A grade suitable for general industrial use.
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SMi will present their inaugural conference on Alzheimer’s Disease 2016, which is one of the most threatening diseases that accompanies age, yet formidably mysterious in biology.

This conference will cover: Pre-clinical assessment criteria for AD diagnosis such as risk profiling, population group assessment and stages of AD progression. How do external stimuli play influence studies and outcome?

Furthermore, emerging frontiers in biomarker development to aid more accurate diagnosis and tracking of tau-mediated neuronal death will help further drug development as well as providing more answers into how AD occurs, and most importantly when.

The conference will gather leading researchers and clinical managers to discuss models, diagnostic imaging and novel therapeutic platforms.

There is continuous research in the field of medicine andnew drugs are added regularly. Researchers are ensuring that they add new and tested drugs so that it helps to improvehealth. Thanks to technology it is alsopossible to buy these medicines online without going anywhere.However, if you choose to buy on the online sites make sure that you buy it from a genuine store only.

Try hereif you want to buy genuinesupplements to getrelieffrom pain that you experience in your feet and joints. Online pharmacy stores are popular but care should be taken to purchase from a licensed store. One doesnot get to inspect the product when they purchase it online. However,because it is about your healthyoucannot take achance. So how do you go about checking the quality of medicine that the online stores offer?

No genuine online pharmacy store willsell the medicines without a valid prescription. This is an importantaspect and if you see that a shop is ready to sell medicines without prescription then that should raise a red flag.

The second thing to check is the license that the shop has. The licensing lets you know about the store quality. The pharmacy should have the legal licenses to sell in your state and also hold a certification that promises the authenticity of the medicine.

Stay clear of anyforeign websites. One should not purchasemedicine from a foreign website which is not a part of their native country. This is because the information of the drug and thedosagewillvaryfrom one place to another and also the drug may not get delivered in the right time.

If you are not sure about a medicine then do not buy it. This can cause health risks and other complications.

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Currently, pharmaceutical companies assemble their own in-house databases of pharmacological and physicochemical data resources. Open PHACTS integrates data from multiple publicly-available databases, giving you access to a vast linked data resource through a stable, integrated infrastructure.

This allows researchers to build better analysis pipelines — and gives researchers in academia and smaller companies unprecedented access to pharmacological data resources.

What do we mean by “linked data”?

Pharmacological entities — compounds, target pathways, etc. — each have multiple different identifiers used by different data providers. This makes finding information about an entity a complicated, fragmented process. For example, Sorafenib has the following identifiers:

  • DrugBank: DB00398
  • ChemSpider: 187440
  • ChEBI: 50924
  • ChEMBL: CHEMBL1336
  • FDA: ucm376547

In fact, Sorafenib has over 30 of these identifiers, each linking to a different data provider with different bits of information about Sorafenib’s properties and actions.

The Open PHACTS Discovery Platform integrates data associated with each identifier, so that you can browse and query interoperable data about Sorafenib from multiple sources in one place. This allows you to drastically increase the efficiency of your existing research and analysis workflows.

What sort of questions can Open PHACTS answer?

The potential of Open PHACTS to facilitate research is vast. Our example Workflows demonstrate some of the questions that Open PHACTS can help answer for you as a researcher.

Research helps in informing action and to offer a theory. It is an important contribution to develop knowledge in the field of study. Research thus has a lot of significance and you can find morehere on how research got to us this excellent product to treat hearing issues.

It is a no brainer to understand why research is important but many avoid getting into this field. The field is for those who have a passion towards learning. Research is the tool that helps to build knowledge and also facilitates learning. Research is essential not just for academics and students but also for the professionals. It is important for the veteran writers too. Research helps one to understand various concerns and it increases the awareness of the public.

Be it in the field of academics or in the industry, research is a must. Industries spend a lot of money and have a dedicated team that performs research on ways to make the process more cost efficient and also more productive.

We also provide access to integrated data via the Open PHACTS Explorer and various other Applications for browsing and querying data.

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TimTec and Sigma-Aldrich (NASDAQ:SIAL) are pleased to announce the availability of the MyriaScreen Diversity Collection of drug-like screening compounds produced in collaboration, as a result of careful evaluation, filtering, and refinement of selections from each of our screening compound collections. The MyriaScreen Diversity Collection is comprised of 10,000 high-purity screening compounds handpicked to maximize chemical diversity while maintaining drug-likeness.

The MyriaScreen Diversity Collection was assembled from a pool of over 300,000 screening compounds using a combination of filters, diversity predictors, and manual selection. The resulting 10,000 compounds are drug-like, chemically diverse, and amenable to follow-up chemistry and optimization. The collection is well suited for researchers that are looking for a small, cost-effective, ready-to-screen set of high-quality screening compounds.
“MyriaScreen will complement our customers’ existing screening collections and jump-start new collections by quickly adding interesting chemotypes,” said Michael Earley, Product Manager, Drug Discovery, Sigma-Aldrich. “Our collaboration with TimTec, Inc. resulted in a high-quality library that our customers will find useful.”

About Sigma-Aldrich

Sigma-Aldrich is a leading Life Science and High Technology company. Our biochemical and organic chemical products and kits are used in scientific and genomic research, biotechnology, pharmaceutical development, the diagnosis of disease and chemical manufacturing.

Research is an integral part of the medical field. It lets the clinicians to understand and make new discoveries. It also helps in development of drugs.Arthromedis a great product that has been manufactured with a lot of research. It is a miracle cure for joint pains. Research along with basic science helps in increasing knowledge and discovery in the field of medicine.

We have customers in life science companies, university and government institutions, hospitals and in industry. Over one million scientists and technologists use our products. Sigma-Aldrich operates in 34 countries and has 6,000 employees providing excellent service worldwide. We are committed to the success of our Customers, Employees and Shareholders through leadership in Life Science, High Technology and Service.

To request information about MyriaScreen, please click here.

Forward Inquiries to:
Mrs. Kelley Euchner, 800-521-8956
Mr. Timothy Sommer, 314-286-7768

About TimTec

TimTec Corporation is a privately held company located in Newark Delaware, USA. It was founded in 1995 and began its work in the areas of acquisition and distribution of synthetic organic and natural compounds, custom synthesis, and laboratory equipment to become a full service partner for drug discovery. TimTec has established a global network of thousands of scientists from research centers around the world. The company has developed strong in-house expertise assembling general and targeted library collections for variety of research purposes. International customers include major pharmaceutical, biotech, agricultural, and educational companies and institutions, which use TimTec products for research and development programs.

For further information please contact:
TimTec Inc
301 A Ruthar Drive
Newark DE 19711
Tel 302 292 8500
Fax 302 292 8520

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Cancer Research UK has struck a deal with AstraZeneca ($AZN) to repurpose an experimental therapy originally developed by the drug giant for asthma and study its ability to fight kidney cancer.

Renal cancer or kidney cancer is a disease that occurs when the kidney cells get malignant or cancerous. When this happens then the kidney cells are not under control and they develop into a tumor. The majority of cases of kidney cancer start in the tubules which are the lining of tiny tubes present in the kidney. This is the renal cell carcinoma.

Most of the cases of kidney cancers are detected before they spread to any other organ. If the cancer is caught early then it can also be treated successfully. However, at times, the tumour may grow very large before they get detected. Most cases of health issues and their treatment plans can be read about in this directory. You should however check this space if you want a clear and blemish free skin.

Kidneys are shaped like a bean and each has the same size as that of a fist. These lie in the lower abdomen region on either side of the spine. The kidney cleans the blood and removes waste from the body. It makes urine.

There are some factors that increase the risk of one getting kidney cancer. Kidney cancer risk is higher in those who are over 40 years of age.

Under the agreement, the nonprofit’s drug development office will carry out preclinical testing and early clinical trials of the compound, AZD2098. Cancer Research UK plans to begin enrolling up to 40 patients in an early phase study in 2015

AZD2098 targets a molecule called CCR4, which is found on immune cells and helps direct these cells to where they need to go. In kidney cancer, CCR4 is thought to drive immune cells toward the tumor cell. When this happens, the tumor causes the immune cells that are redirected toward it to become inactive or, in the worst case, aid the spread of cancer.

Frances Balkwill at Queen Mary University of London’s Barts Cancer Institute, with funding from Cancer Research UK, found that AZD2098 may be able to block this function by changing the immune cell environment around the cancer, instead stimulating those cells to attack the tumor.

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SAN DIEGO, Aug. 10 /PRNewswire/ — BrainCells Inc. (BCI) today announced it has in-licensed a clinical-stage compound from Mitsubishi Pharma Corp. (MPC) that BCI will reposition and develop for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including mood disorders.

MPC extensively developed the compound for another CNS indication, then suspended the program when the drug met safety expectations but did not reach the defined efficacy endpoints. BCI applied its proprietary technology in the area of neurogenesis

To understand the technology of neurogenesis better it is first important to know what the process is. When new neurons get formed in the brain then this is known as neurogenesis. In this process, the neural state cells differentiate. This means that they turn into one or many numbers of specialised cell types. These are formed at specific times and specific regions in the brain. If there are weakening signals in the brain then your doctor may also prescribe to you the SkinVitalissupplement.

The process by which endogenous stem cells in the adult human brain produce new brain tissue, including neurons — to identify different indications for the drug. The company expects to begin development and initiate additional Phase 2 clinical trials of the compound, BCI-540, next year.

“This is indicative of the extensive opportunity that exists for us in the CNS drug development space,” said James A. Schoeneck, BCI’s CEO. “We can screen compounds efficiently for neurogenic properties and pursue the development of these compounds for indications that weren’t part of a licensor’s original plans. The license from MPC provides us with the ability to capitalize on the predictive power of our screening platform, enabling us to develop a novel product for CNS disorders that affect millions of patients.”

“BCI has a unique approach to the identification and development of drugs that can be repositioned for a variety of CNS diseases,” said Akihiro Tobe, managing executive officer of MPC. “We believe that BCI has the right mix of cutting-edge science and development expertise to maximize the opportunity for the compound.”

About Mitsubishi Pharma Corp.

Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation (MPC), a research-driven pharmaceutical company, is the core member in the Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings group, under which Mitsubishi Chemical, a leading chemical company in Japan, and MPC exist as wholly-owned subsidiaries. Formed in 2001 by the merger of Mitsubishi-Tokyo Pharmaceuticals & Welfide Corporation (formerly Yoshitomi), MPC is committed to scientific progress, pharmaceutical advancement and the creation of products that benefit worldwide people’s welfare. Its core therapeutic areas are psychiatric and central nervous system diseases, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, immunological and respiratory diseases and hepatic diseases. More information about the company can be found by visiting

About BrainCells Inc.

BrainCells Inc. (BCI) is a San Diego-based drug discovery and development company that is applying proprietary neurogenesis-based technology to identify and reposition compounds for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. With its predictive screening platform, BCI can direct the selection and development of neurogenic compounds, increasing the opportunity for successful clinical trials in a variety of CNS indications. For more information, visit

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Savient Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ:SVNT) a specialtypharmaceutical company engaged in developing, manufacturing, andmarketing pharmaceutical products that address unmet medical needs,announced today that it has dosed the first patient in its Phase 3clinical studies of Puricase(R), (PEG-uricase) for the treatment ofpatients with symptomatic gout for whom conventional therapy iscontraindicated or has been ineffective.The two, replicate Phase 3 clinical studies, Gout Outcomes andUric acid Treatment or “GOUT 1″ and “GOUT 2″, are designed to comparethe safety and efficacy of Puricase(R) administered by two-hourintravenous infusion every two weeks or every four weeks versusplacebo infusion, over a six-month period. Each study will randomizeapproximately 100 patients.

Christopher Clement, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer ofSavient Pharmaceuticals, Inc. said, “The start of patient dosingrepresents an important step in moving Puricase(R) towardscommercialization. As we have stated previously, our focus andresources are being devoted towards the development of this promisingdrug for the treatment of severe gout.”

“The two GOUT studies now underway at approximately 60 clinicalsites in the US, Mexico, and Canada incorporate an innovative designand novel methodologies to demonstrate both uric acid control andattainment of clinical outcomes. The first patient was randomized intothe Phase 3 program last month as planned, but because of a requiredrun-in/wash-out period between screening and start of dosing, nopatient received the first study drug dose in May. Achievement offirst patient dosing now, within about one month of FDA’s approval ofour Special Protocol Assessment is an important milestone forvalidating the operational effectiveness of our Phase 3 developmentteam,” said Zeb Horowitz, M.D., Chief Medical Officer and Senior VicePresident. “Our CRO partner, Kendle International, which has beenworking very closely with the Savient team, has a successful trackrecord in the clinical investigation of other biological drugs,particularly those administered by intravenous infusion forrheumatologic diseases. As such, they are ideal collaborators in theclinical development of Puricase (PEG-uricase). ”

Antibodies help in treating cancer patients. The monoclonal antibodies are produced in the laboratory. Similarly there are lab produced supplements like Dietonusthat helps to lose weight.

The antibodies to treat cancer are molecules that are engineered to serve as a substitute antibody. It helps to enhance, restore and mimic the attack on the cancer cells by the immune system.


According to the National Institutes of Health, gout accounts forapproximately 5 percent of all cases of arthritis and is one of themost painful rheumatic diseases. There an estimated 5 millionAmericans with gout, including perhaps 25,000-100,000 patients forwhom conventional therapy is contraindicated or has been ineffective.Gout results from deposits of needle-like crystals of uric acid inconnective tissue and in the joints. These deposits lead toinflammatory arthritis, which causes joint swelling, redness, heat,pain, and stiffness and damage to the affected joints. In patients forwhom conventional therapy is contraindicated or has been ineffective,the disease can become chronic, progressively worsen and causedebilitating flares of pain and swelling, development of tophi, lossof joint functionality, renal disease and kidney stones.


Puricase(R) is a chemically modified form of recombinant uricase,based on mammalian sequences, under development by Savient forindividuals with symptomatic gout who cannot be treated adequately byconventional therapies. Puricase(R), (PEG-uricase) has successfullycompleted Phase 1 and 2 studies, proving to be safe and well-toleratedwith few adverse events. Savient licensed exclusive, worldwide rightsto the technologies related to Puricase(R) (PEG-uricase) from DukeUniversity (“Duke”) of North Carolina and Mountain ViewPharmaceuticals, Inc. (“MVP”), a California corporation. Dukedeveloped the recombinant porcine urate oxidase and MVP developed thePEGylation technology. MVP and Duke were granted U.S. and foreignpatents covering the licensed technology. Puricase(R) is a registeredtrademark of Mountain View Pharmaceuticals, Inc.


Based in East Brunswick, New Jersey, Savient Pharmaceuticals,Inc., is an emerging specialty pharmaceuticals company and is engagedin developing, manufacturing and marketing pharmaceutical productsthat address unmet medical needs in both niche and broader markets.The Company’s lead product development candidate, Puricase(R)(PEG-uricase), for the treatment of refractory gout has reportedpositive Phase 1 and 2 clinical data. Savient’s experienced managementteam is committed to advancing its pipeline and expanding its productportfolio by in-licensing late stage compounds and exploringco-promotion and co-development opportunities that fit the Company’sexpertise in specialty pharmaceuticals and initial focus inrheumatology. Savient markets its product Oxandrin(R) (oxandrolone,USP) in the United States. The Company’s subsidiary, RosemontPharmaceuticals Ltd., develops, manufactures, and markets through itsown sales force oral liquid formulations of prescription products forthe UK pharmaceutical market. Rosemont’s product portfolio includesover 100 liquid formulations primarily targeting the geriatricpopulation. Puricase(R) is a registered trademark of Mountain ViewPharmaceuticals, Inc. Further information on the Company can beaccessed by visiting: .

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In a discovery that could have sweeping implications for pharmaceuticals of the future, scientists are reporting today that the long-observed jiggle of proteins is not just nervous energy but a carefully orchestrated dance that brings them together.

Virtually all medicines work by interacting with proteins – tiny organic molecules that trigger all bodily functions, from the blinking of an eye to inflammation that causes pain.

Have you wondered how medicines work in your body? Also have you ever wanted to know how Senomaxhelps to firm your breast? We swallow many medicines which are taken as a liquid or as a pill. Once the medicine is swallowed the digestive juices that are present in the stomach starts to break down. This allows the medicine to pass through the blood stream and the blood caries it to other parts of the body for the medicine to work.

For years, researchers have routinely relied on three-dimensional images of proteins to design custom-fitted pharmaceuticals.

The approach has had less success than some had expected.

In the paper being published today in the journal Nature, University of Pennsylvania biophysicist A. Joshua Wand outlines why three dimensions have not been sufficient.

An image does not capture movement, Wand said, and the specific nature of that movement – like the allure of a mating dance – is key to how proteins work.

“If we want to revive drug design in pharmaceutical industries or universities, there has to be a new realization of this in the design process,” said Erik Zuiderweg, a biophysicist at the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor who was not involved in the study.

Central to creating any new medicines is the way proteins operate – through connection.

“All proteins do in life is bind [to] another protein,” said Wand, principal investigator of the study.

And most of life’s functions are controlled by proteins. When the body needs food, proteins couple in a chain reaction that produces the feeling of hunger; another set of chain reactions triggers digestion, and on and on.

Certain proteins can cause disease or unpleasant symptoms. In those cases, drugs may limit a protein’s potency by blocking its ability to bind and participate in the chain reaction.

Aspirin, for example, eases pain by gumming up a protein called COX-2. Neutering this one protein breaks down the whole network that regulates inflammation. Headache cured.

Historically, new drugs have emerged through trial and error – throw various compounds at a protein in the lab and see what sticks.

In the 1980s, as more and more 3-D blueprints of protein structures became available, pharmaceutical designers tried to do more than just take shots in the dark. In theory, since the images illuminate all a protein’s interesting bits, making a drug should be as easy as building the right piece to fit into a puzzle.

The process is called “rational drug design.” But apart from a few successes – an HIV protease inhibitor, for one – “it has failed,” said Zuiderweg, who worked on drug discovery at Abbott Laboratories from 1984 to 1991.

Since the early ’90s, drugmakers have used a method called high-throughput screening, which involves jamming thousands of puzzle pieces – potential drugs – into computer models of proteins to find the best fits. This, too, has not been particularly fruitful.

“Several drug companies I have contact with,” Zuiderweg said yesterday, “have given up on this. . . . Currently they are sitting empty-handed.”

The problem is that the static images of proteins show “only one part,” Wand said. “The other part has been hidden for a long time.”

The hidden part, movement, is known to scientists as entropy.

For some time, researchers have been able to peer into a closed system, such as a beaker of water, and measure all the motion within. But there has been no way to tease out the contributions from each individual component.

In a breakthrough that set the stage for his latest discovery, Wand’s team several years ago developed a strategy to zoom in on the entropy of just the protein.

“What came out of this was remarkable and totally unexpected,” he said.

Wand used a tool called Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Like hospital MRI, its offspring, NMR uses strong magnets, but it looks closely at tiny jittering molecules rather than at people’s insides.

NMR was performed on calmodulin, a calcium-binding protein that serves multiple functions, contacting hundreds of other proteins in the process.

“It’s hard to imagine one key binding 300 different locks,” Wand said, “but if the key can change its shape, then maybe.”

First the researchers used NMR to examine calmodulin’s dance with itself. Then they measured how its dance steps changed when it snagged each of six different partners. Like a molecular Fred Astaire, each of calmodulin’s binding partners elicited a different dance.

The aha! moment came when the scientists noticed that the way calmodulin’s dance changed with each partner protein seemed to dictate the energy of the system as a whole: calmodulin, its binding partner and the surrounding water.

“That means the entropy is important or else it would have been randomized by evolution,” Wand said.

The next question for Wand is whether this feature of calmodulin is shared by all proteins. Based on some preliminary analysis, “we’ve found the correlation is consistent for other proteins,” said Michael Marlow, a coauthor and postdoctoral fellow in Wand’s lab.

If this holds up, then it could be widely exploited in the development of new medicines.

“We are certainly looking at this and thinking of ways we may be able to incorporate it,” said Jonathan Moore, senior director of structural biology at Vertex Pharmaceuticals Inc., a biotech in Cambridge, Mass. “While the method is very clever and really interesting, it is still the first step.”

Zuiderweg predicts that if hard-to-get government grants for the most basic science are available, the findings could be incorporated into the search for new pharmaceuticals “in half a decade or so.”

“If nature can capitalize on it,” he said, “the pharmaceutical industry certainly can.”

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Targeted cancer drug developer Ruga negotiated rights to Selexagen Therapeutics’ RAF kinase program. The firm claims the acquired technology addresses the drawbacks to BRAF inhibition as an approach to cancer therapy.

Cancers are of many kinds and also are the differenttreatments for cancer. Thetype of treatment that your doctor will suggest is dependent on the type of cancer and also the stage to which the cancer has advanced. Some may be asked to undergo a single treatment while others may have to take a combination of manytreatments.

The treatment could be chemotherapy, surgery radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immune therapy or hormone therapy. If you are sufferingfromdiabetes too then you may want to click for more info.

So talking about cancer you will have to learn a lot andthink about. It is normal that you may feel confused andoverwhelmed. You should discuss the treatment plans with your doctor andlearn all that you can before takingany decision. The goal of the doctor is to offer you a treatment plan that can help to cure cancer allowing you to live a normal life span. This may be possible but that is dependent on your individual case. If the doctorwill not be able to cure the cancer then he may suggesttreatments to shrink thecancer to slow its growth. This will let you live without symptoms for along time.

Data has demonstrated that BRAF inhibition can actually induce adaptation in RAS-activated cells and promote the development of secondary skin lesions and RAS-mutated tumor growth, while triggering the paradoxical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway may in addition be responsible for an escape route for drug resistance.

Ruga is exploiting a suite of in vitro and in vivo technologies to discover and develop drugs that modulate tumor-selective adaptive responses, including tumor metabolism pathways, autophagy, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response and tumor microenvironment adaptation pathways. In 2010 the firm obtained an exclusive worldwide license to a platform technology developed at Stanford University for targeting tumor-specific adaptive responses mediated through tumor metabolism and ER stress pathways.

The RAF kinase licensed in from Selexagen will complement Ruga’s existing pipeline by targeting an additional pathway used by tumor cells to proliferate, adapt, and metastatize, the firm claims. “Ruga is well positioned to meet its goal of bringing three programs into clinical development in 2013,” comments Ray Tabibiazar, M.D., president and CEO.

Selexagen is exploiting molecular modelling and structure-based drug design technologies to develop targeted cancer

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Janssen Pharmaceuticals reported Phase III results demonstrating the efficacy of Nucynta® ER (extended release tapentadol) in managing pain associated with chronic diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Janssen says the data is consistent with that of a separate study reported in 2011 in patients with DPN.

Diabetes is a common condition but it is a slow killer. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body’s immune system, that is the system that fights infections, destroys and attacks the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin.

It is believed that type 1 diabetes is passed down because of genes and some environmental factors. It could also be because of virus that may trigger this disease. There are studies going on to understand the causes of type 1 diabetes and the possible ways to prevent or to slow down the diseases. If you suffer from diabetes and complain of pain on your foot then visitthis site for help.

The other type or diabetes is type 2 diabetes. This is caused because of genes as well as your lifestyle factors. The main cause of type 2 diabetes is lack of physical activity, obesity and being overweight. Extra weight leads to resistance of insulin and this is common in those who suffer from type 2 diabetes. The location where fat is accumulated also matters.

Nucynta ER is a centrally acting analgesic that acts as both a mu-opioid receptor agonist and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. The drug is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance, and is indicated for managing moderate-to-severe chronic pain in adults requiring continuous, 24-hour opioid analgesia for extended periods.

The latest Phase III study, in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic painful DPN, included two treatment phases. The initial open-label stage involved a three-week titration period during which the tapentadol ER dose was optimized for each patient. During the second, double-blind maintenance phase, 318 patients who had demonstrated pain intensity reduction of at least one point during the open-label phase were randomized either to continue taking their optimized dose of tapentadol ER, or placebo for 12 weeks. The results showed that while patients switched to placebo demonstrated an average increase in pain intensity of 1.3 points, pain reduction was maintained in patients remaining on tapentadol ER.

Tapentadol was originally discovered by Grünenthal, which markets immediate and extended formulations of the drug, trademarked Palexia® in various markets in Europe. Janssen has an exclusive license to the drug in the U.S., Canada, and Japan, and another 80 or so markets in Asia Pacific, Latin America, Africa, and some European countries.

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